What is the radar system ? with block diagram.



radar is a short form of radio detection and ranging. It was developed more or less simultaneously in USA, Great Britain and France a few years before world war 2nd.

  • RADAR is an electronic device for the detection and location of objects.
  • It operates by transmitting back particular type of wave- form, a pulse modulated sine wave for example, and detects the nature of the returned echo signal.
  • It is used to extend the capability of man's sense for observing his environment.
  • Especially the sense of vision.

Basic principles

A typical radar system consists of a transmitter and a receiver , each connected to a directional antenna through a duplexer.

  • The transmitter sends a large UHF or microwave power through the antenna.
  • The receiver receivers, analyses and displays the information in the reflected energy picked up by the antenna.
Normally the same antenna is used for transmission and reception. This is accomplished with the help of a switch called duplexer.
    Fig. Show  a block diagram of  and elementary pulsed radar system.

Application of Radar 

Employed in the air, on the ground,on the sea ,and undoubtedly will be used in space as well.

  • Airborne radar can be used to detect other air crafts, ships or land vehicles.also used to located storms and some dangerous types of clouds.
  • Ground based radar is mainly used for the detection and location of  aircraft or space targets.
  • Shipboard radars are used to detect other ships or aircraft or it may be used as a navigation aid to locate shore lines or buoys.
Scientific applications of radar include study of various planets , guidance of space probes and their tracking, microwave spectroscopy, etc.

Tracking Radar system

  • The most common tracking methods used purely for tracking are the conical scan and mono pulse system.
  • A system that gives the angular position of a target accurately is said to be tracking in angle.
  • If the range information is also continuously obtained, tracking in range ( as well as in angle, is said to be taking place ,while a tracker that continuously monitors the relative target velocity by Doppler shift is said to be tracking in Doppler as well.


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